facebookMeasuring Forgiveness in Health-rel... by Charlotte V. O. Witvliet,Daryl R. Van Tongeren,Lindsey Root Luna | Templeton

Using measures for self, others and the Sacred

Measuring Forgiveness in Health-related Contexts

Charlotte V. O. Witvliet, Daryl R. Van Tongeren, Lindsey Root Luna

Forgiveness and Health, 2015

Research details

Type of paper: Theoretical/Conceptual/Review

Open Access: No


In this chapter, we review forgiveness measures for use within healthcare settings. Because forgiveness is multidimensional, and individuals can perceive various offenders, we differentiate between forgiveness of self, others, and the Sacred. First, we adopt a stress-and-coping framework to explore the association between forgiveness and health. Next, we examine forgiveness measures across the three domains (self, others, the Sacred) and their relation to health and healthcare settings. Finally, we recommend screening questions about pain related to blame of self, others, or the Sacred and whether the patient wishes to address this in their care. If so, we suggest state-scales that assess forgiveness of self (e.g., Wohl and Thompson, Br J Soc Psychol 50:354–364, 2011, plus questions of responsibility and reparative behavior per Fisher and Exline, Self Identity 5:127–146, 2006), another person (e.g., TRIM-18; McCullough et al, J Consult Clin Psychol 74:887–897, 2006), and the Sacred (e.g., Attitude Toward God Scale; Wood et al, Psychol Relig Spiritual 2:148–167, 2010). These state assessments can be re-administered to assess treatment.